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  • Skunks have a pair of specialized sacs located in their anus; each sac is connected to the outside by a small duct that opens just inside the anus. The sacs are merely pouches that store an extremely foul smelling secretion produced by glands that line the sacs.

  • Spondylosis deformans is a condition that affects the vertebral bones of the spine and is characterized by the presence of bony spurs or ‘osteophytes’ along the edges of the bones of the spine. A bony spur may develop in a single spot on the spine; more commonly, there will be multiple bone spurs in several different locations along the spine.

  • Corticosteroids (commonly referred to as steroids or cortisone) are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal glands. Corticosteroids are involved in a wide range activity in the body, including the stress response, immune system response, control of inflammation, nutrient metabolism, and maintenance of blood electrolyte levels.

  • Administering supplemental fluids can benefit dogs with a variety of medical conditions. Most commonly, home fluid therapy is recommended for dogs with kidney disease or chronic renal failure (CRF).

  • Few events are more frightening for a pet parent than a surgery. Although surgery may sometimes be unavoidable, fortunately our understanding of pet pain - how it occurs, how it affects all body systems, how to prevent it, and how to treat it - has improved dramatically over the past 5 to 10 years.

  • The tail is an important part of the canine anatomy and is actually an extension of the spine. This complex tail structure of bone, muscles, nerves, and blood vessels can easily be injured.

  • Nebulization and coupage are two techniques used in the treatment of lung disease. Nebulization is a term used to describe the delivery of a fine mist to the lungs. In some cases, this fine mist may consist of saline or water only. Coupage is performed by striking the chest gently but firmly with cupped hands.

  • Therapeutic laser is the application of light energy to areas of the body to stimulate healing. This light–tissue interaction is called photobiomodulation. In the past, therapeutic laser was often referred to as “low-level” or “cold” laser (as opposed to a surgical or “hot” laser).

  • As veterinarians become more conscious of the details and nuances of how dogs experience pain, they search for more methods with which to battle both acute and chronic pain in these patients. It is quite common now to look to human medicine for ideas and techniques that can be applied to dogs who are dealing with pain issues to help them feel better and to help relive their pain and discomfort. Therapeutic massage is one example of a physical medicine technique that has found a place in the canine pain management armamentarium.

  • Therapeutic ultrasound is used as a treatment modality (method) to exert thermal, mechanical, and chemical effects on the treated tissues to enhance and facilitate healing. Physical therapists have used therapeutic ultrasound on human patients since the 1940s, and veterinarians have used it on animals since the 1970’s.



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Pet Health Library

Bridgton Veterinary Hospital is pleased is to provide a library of professionally written articles updated by practice experts and reviewed by practitioners to bring you the most up-to-date, trustworthy pet health information. Please feel free to browse.


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Bridgton Veterinary Hospital is full-service, small animal veterinary hospital providing comprehensive medical, surgical and dental care. We provide a broad spectrum of diagnostic procedures through in-house testing and the use of external laboratories.


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