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  • Weight loss can be due to simple problems of feeding and nutrition, or can be due to a variety of medical conditions that result in poor digestion, decreased absorption of nutrients, or loss of nutrients from the body.

  • The thyroid gland is located near the trachea (windpipe), just below the larynx (voice box). It is a paired gland that is responsible for the production of thyroid hormones. The major thyroid hormone that is produced by the thyroid gland is thyroxine (T4). A small amount of another thyroid hormone, triiodothyronine (T3), is also made by the thyroid gland.

  • Trypsinogen is a proenzyme (a non-activated enzyme) that is secreted into the small intestine by the pancreas, along with other pancreatic digestive enzymes. When it reaches the small intestine, trypsinogen is converted to trypsin, an enzyme that is involved in the digestion of proteins.

  • The tympanic membrane or “eardrum” is a thin membrane that separates the outer ear canal from the middle and inner ear. The middle ear contains the three tiniest bones in the body, the malleus, incus and stapes, more commonly referred to as the “hammer, anvil and stirrup.” The Eustachian tubes are also located in the middle ear. If the eardrum is perforated or “tears,” bacteria and fungi from the outer ear canal may enter the sensitive middle ear resulting in otitis media or middle ear infection.

  • An ultrasound examination, also known as ultrasonography, is a non-invasive imaging technique that allows internal body structures to be seen by recording echoes or reflections of ultrasonic waves.

  • Urinalysis is a routine test that reports the physical and chemical properties of urine. It is used mainly to assess the health of the kidneys and urinary system, but it can also reveal problems in other organ systems, and is important for diagnosing metabolic disease such as diabetes mellitus.

  • Cortisol is a stress hormone that is excreted from the body in the urine. The amount of cortisol in the urine reflects the average cortisol concentration in the blood at the time that the urine was formed. However, this measurement is affected by the concentration of the urine.

  • The presence of protein in urine is called proteinuria, and it may indicate that the kidneys are not working properly.

  • The urine protein:creatinine ratio is a simple test that measures how much protein is being lost through the kidneys. It is used to determine whether a pet may have serious kidney disease.

  • Von Willebrand’s disease is one of the most common hereditary bleeding disorders in dogs, and has been identified in more than 50 different breeds. Breeds with an increased incidence of von Willebrand’s disease include the Doberman Pinscher, Manchester Terrier, Pembroke Welsh Corgi, French Poodle, Shetland Sheepdog (or Sheltie), and Scottish Terrier.



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Pet Health Library

Bridgton Veterinary Hospital is pleased is to provide a library of professionally written articles updated by practice experts and reviewed by practitioners to bring you the most up-to-date, trustworthy pet health information. Please feel free to browse.


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Bridgton Veterinary Hospital is full-service, small animal veterinary hospital providing comprehensive medical, surgical and dental care. We provide a broad spectrum of diagnostic procedures through in-house testing and the use of external laboratories.


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